carculator online 1.3.2

Make fast comparisons between different cars, under different scenarios. Save and export your results. Import them in your model.

New in 1.3.2

  • uses carculator 1.8.4

New in 1.3.1

  • uses carculator 1.8.2

New in 1.3.0

  • uses carculator 1.8.0

New in 1.2.3

  • uses carculator 1.7.2
  • fixes bugs with selection of battery chemistry

New in 1.2.2

  • uses carculator 1.7.0



carculator 1.8.4

Make detailed or fleet-wide analyses. Perform sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Use results in other Python libraries. Export your inventories directly into Brightway2.

pip install carculator
requires python >=3.9

New in 1.8.4

  • Fixes issue with FC system efficiency
  • Fixes issue underestimating exhaust emissions

New in 1.8.2

  • Efficiencies calculated dynamically

New in 1.8.0

  • Code refactoring

New in 1.7.2

  • New electric utility factor for PHEVs (ICCT 2022)
  • New inventories for lithium, cobalt and graphite
  • Correct error in battery inventories
  • Update to REMIND v.3 for future background database

New in 1.7.0

  • change cell mass share in battery to 70% in 2020
  • fixes wrong human health effects

New in 1.6.3

  • uses ecoinvent 3.8
  • updates battery inventories


carculator is an open-source, comprehensive and transparent life cycle assessment tool for passenger cars. It allows for an economic and environmental evaluation of different types of cars under several driving and energy supply scenarios. Results partly rely on the background inventory data of ecoinvent v3.6, and the implementation of impact assessment methods therein.

Clean Code

The code is kept as clean and accessible as possible.

Great Features

Allows for fast and highly parametrized life cycle assessments.

Fast Library

A Python library version allows for even more specific assessments.


Export inventories compatible with Brightway2.


Relies on recent published inventories to model energy chains.

Well Documented

The library is fully tested, documented and hosted on .

Some facts about

Size classes
Driving cycles
Li-ion battery types
Electricity mixes for battery charging
Time horizons
Cars used for calibration


The team behind the development of carculator sits at the Paul Scherrer Institute, in the Technology Assessment group.

Christian Bauer


Chris Mutel

Pit-stop manager
team member

Brian Cox

Designer (now at INFRAS)

Xiaojin Zhang

Engine specialist

Karin Treyer

Chief Aerodynamicist
team member

Romain Sacchi


Publications on mobility

Hydrogen production from natural gas and biomethane with carbon capture and storage – A techno-environmental analysis.
Cristina Antonini, Karin Treyer, Anne Streb, Mijndert van der Spek, Christian Bauer and Marco Mazzotti
Sustainable Energy and Fuels. 2020. DOI: 10.1039/D0SE00222D
Life cycle environmental and cost comparison of current and future passenger cars under different energy scenarios
Cox, B., Bauer, C., Mendoza Beltran, A., van Vuuren, D., and Mutel, C.
Applied Energy. 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115021
Life cycle assessment of power-to-gas with biogas as the carbon source
Xiaojin Zhang, Julia Witte, Tilman Schilhauer and Christian Bauer
Sustainable Energy and Fuels. 2020. DOI: 10.1039/C9SE00986H
Uncertain Environmental Footprint of Current and Future Battery Electric Vehicles
Brian Cox, Christopher L Mutel, Christian Bauer, Angelica Mendoza Beltran, and Detlef P. van Vuuren.
Environmental Science and Technology. 2018 52 (8), 4989-4995. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b00261
Life cycle assessment of air transportation and the Swiss commercial air transport fleet
Brian Cox, Wojciech Jemiolo, Chris Mutel
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2018 58, 1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.10.017
The environmental performance of current and future passenger vehicles: Life cycle assessment based on a novel scenario analysis framework
Christian Bauer, Johannes Hofer, Hans-Jörg Althaus, Andrea Del Duce, Andrew Simons
Applied Energy. 2015 57, 871-883. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.019
A life-cycle perspective on automotive fuel cells
Andrew Simons, Christian Bauer
Applied Energy. 2015 157, 884-896. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.02.049
The environmental and cost performance of current and future motorcycles
Cox, B. and Mutel, C.
Applied Energy. 2018 212, 1013-1024. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.100
The integration of long-term marginal electricity supply mixes in the ecoinvent consequential database version 3.4 and examination of modeling choices
Vandepaer, L., Treyer, K., Mutel, C., Bauer, C. and Amor, B.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s11367-018-1571-4
Life Cycle Assessment of Power-to-Gas: Approaches, system variations and their environmental implications
Zhang, X., Bauer, C., Mutel, C. and Volkart, K.
Applied Energy. 2017 190, 326-338. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.12.098
Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production
Simons, A., Bauer, C.
in Transition to Hydrogen: Pathways Toward Clean Transportation, Cambridge University Press. 2011. ISBN: 9780521192880.


We are always happy to hear from you.

carculator support

Write to us if you have any questions about the tool, methods or results.

Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, Switzerland

+41 (0)56 310 2391